1. Sociology - The Discipline:

  • a) Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of sociology.
  • b) Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences
  • c) Sociology and common sense.

2. Sociology as Science:

  • a) Science, scientific method and critique.
  • b) Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
  • c) Positivism and its critique.
  • d) Fact value and objectivity.
  • e) Non- positivist methodologies.

3. Research Methods and Analysis:

  • a) Qualitative and quantitative methods.
  • b) Techniques of data collection.
  • c) Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.

4. Sociological Thinkers:

  • a) Karl Marx- Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.
  • b) Emile Durkheim- Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.
  • c) Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
  • d) Talcolt Parsons- Social system, pattern variables.
  • e) Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups
  • f) Mead - Self and identity.

5. Stratification and Mobility:

  • a) Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation.
  • b) Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.
  • c) Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.
  • d) Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.

6. Works and Economic Life:

  • a) Social organization of work in different types of society- slave society, feudal society, industrial /capitalist society.
  • b) Formal and informal organization of work.
  • c) Labour and society.

7. Politics and Society:

  • a) Sociological theories of power.
  • b) Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties.
  • c) Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology
  • d) Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.

8. Religion and Society:

  • a) Sociological theories of religion.
  • b) Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults
  • c) Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.

9. Systems of Kinship:

  • a) Family, household, marriage.
  • b) Types and forms of family.
  • c) Lineage and descent.
  • d) Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.
  • e) Contemporary trends.

10. Social Change in Modern Society:

  • a) Sociological theories of social change.
  • b) Development and dependency
  • c) Agents of social change
  • d) Education and social change.
  • e) Science, technology and social change.



A. Introducing Indian Society:

  • (i) Perspectives on the study of Indian Society:
    • a) Indology (GS. Ghurye).
    • b) Structural functionalism (M N Srinivas).
    • c) Marxist sociology (A R Desai).
  • (ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian Society:
    • a) Social background of Indian nationalism.
    • b) Modernization of Indian tradition
    • c) Protests and movements during the colonial period.
    • d) Social reforms.

B. Social Structure:

  • (i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:
    • a) The idea of Indian village and village studies.
    • b) Agrarian social structure – evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.
  • (ii) Caste System:
    • a) Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.
    • b) Features of caste system.
    • c) Untouchability - forms and perspectives.
  • (iii) Tribal communities in India:
    • a) Definitional problems.
    • b) Geographical spread.
    • c) Colonial policies and tribes.
    • d) Issues of integration and autonomy.
  • (iv) Social Classes in India:
    • a) Agrarian class structure.
    • b) Industrial class structure.
    • c) Middle classes in India.
  • (v) Systems of Kinship in India:
    • a) Lineage and descent in India.
    • b) Types of kinship systems.
    • c) Family and marriage in India.
    • d) Household dimensions of the family.
    • e) Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour.
  • (vi) Religion and Society:
    • a) Religious communities in India
    • b) Problems of religious minorities.

C. Social Changes in India:

  • (i) Visions of Social Change in India:
    • a) Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
    • b) Constitution, law and social change.
    • c) Education and social change.
  • (ii) Rural and Agrarian transformation in India:
    • a) Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.
    • b) Green revolution and social change.
    • c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture.
    • d) Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.
  • (iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:
    • a) Evolution of modern industry in India.
    • b) Growth of urban settlements in India.
    • c) Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
    • d) Informal sector, child labour.
    • e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas.
  • (iv) Politics and Society:
    • a) Nation, democracy and citizenship.
    • b) Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite.
    • c) Regionalism and decentralization of power.
    • d) Secularization
  • (v) Social Movements in Modern India:
    • a) Peasants and farmers movements.
    • b) Women’s movement.
    • c) Backward classes & Dalit movement.
    • d) Environmental movements.
    • e) Ethnicity and Identity movements.
  • (vi) Population Dynamics:
    • a) Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
    • b) Components of population growth: birth, death, migration
    • c) Population policy and family planning.
    • d) Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.
  • (vii) Challenges of Social Transformation:
    • a) Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
    • b) Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
    • c) Violence against women.
    • d) Caste conflicts.
    • e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
    • f) Illiteracy and disparities in education.